Manual Regression of Atherosclerotic Lesions: Experimental Studies and Observations in Humans

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The normal intima occurs independently of and prior to the fat feeding associated with atherosclerosis 4. Table 1. Mural cells, cell types that make up arterial wall coats around the endothelium. Normal intima versus neointima As we have just discussed, intimal cell masses form spontaneously at specific sites in the intima of humans and other large animals 4 , Genetic versus epigenetic changes Of course, neoplasia implies a genetic origin, a mutation as is believed to be the cause of uterine leiomyomas 12 , 13 , 16 , 20 , — Figure 2. Clonality is normal. Clonality in the immune system Surprisingly, a recent report shows that clonality of leukopoietic lineages in bone marrow is relevant to the final events in atherosclerosis Figure 3.

Omnis cellula e cellula. Figure 4. Cell type and cell phenotype are not necessarily the same thing.

Animal Models of Cardiovascular Disease | Revista Española de Cardiología

Figure 5. A new definition of cell type The definition of cell types has traditionally been based on marker genes that is, proteins found at high levels in a differentiated tissue. Figure 6. Defining cell type by cluster: three types and seven types? Figure 7. Endothelial cell precursors can be identified by lineage tracing within the proepicardial organ before cells from that precursor migrate to form the epicardium. Possible sources other than mural cells for origins of intimal cells The media is not the only possible source for intimal cells.

Figure 8. Layers of the artery wall. Figure 9. Dichotomous origins of medial smooth muscle and adventitial fibroblasts. An intimal hypothesis based on fenestrae Figure 10 proposes perhaps the simplest model for plaque monoclonality.


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Figure The simplest hypothesis. In the end, does intimal clonality matter? Our review has tried to make seven points: 1. Grant information Mark W. F recommended References 1.

Benditt EP: Evidence for a monoclonal origin of human atherosclerotic plaques and some implications. Am J Pathol. Circ Res. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. Relationship of monoclonal characteristics, lesion thickness, and age in normal intima and atherosclerotic lesions.


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Cell births and losses in intimal cell mass-derived lesions in the abdominal aorta of swine. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Cardiovasc Res. Comparison of in vitro growth characteristics. Hum Reprod Update. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. Gynecol Obstet Invest. Jpn J Hum Genet. A new cytogenetic subgroup.

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Atherosclerosis

Cancer Genet Cytogenet. Report of forty cases. Involvement of another high-mobility group architectural factor in a benign neoplasm. J Clin Invest. Stary HC: Macrophage foam cells in the coronary artery intima of human infants. J Immunol. PubMed Abstract Natural history of aortic and coronary atherosclerotic lesions in youth.

Leverage and Influential Points in Simple Linear Regression

Arterioscler Thromb. DeBakey ME, Glaeser DH: Patterns of atherosclerosis: effect of risk factors on recurrence and survival-analysis of 11, cases with more than year follow-up. Am J Cardiol. Birmingham, Alabama: Classics of Medicine Library. Reference Source Ross R: Mechanisms of atherosclerosis--a review. Adv Nephrol Necker Hosp.

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Methods Mol Biol. Am J Primatol. Lusis AJ: Atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis: a defense mechanism gone awry. Curr Opin Lipidol. Mol Med Today.

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J Lipid Res. Schwartz SM: The intima: A new soil. Soil for atherosclerosis and restenosis. JCI Insight. Adv Pharmacol. Nat Commun. Can J Cardiol.

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Nat Med. Stem Cells Transl Med. Majesky MW: Developmental biology in the vasculature--review series. Majesky MW: Developmental basis of vascular smooth muscle diversity. Sinha S, Iyer D, Granata A: Embryonic origins of human vascular smooth muscle cells: implications for in vitro modeling and clinical application.