Bean, Frank D.
Latinos in Ethnic Enclaves: Immigrant Workers and the Competition for Jobs - CRC Press Book
The Hispanic Population of the United States. Blackburn, McKinley L. In Gary Burtless Ed. A Future of Lousy Jobs?
The Changing Structure of U. Wages pp. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute. Bohon, Stephanie.
Latinos in Ethnic Enclaves. New York: Garland. Bonacich, Edna. Borjas, George J. The Quarterly Journal of Economics , 4 : — Backgrounder pp. In Marge Karsten Ed. Westport, CT: Praeger Press. Burtless, Gary. Washington, DC: U. Department of Health and Human Services. Carrington, William J. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 49 , — Catanzarite, Lisa. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility , 16 , — Sociological Perspectives, 43 1 , 45— Work and Occupations , 29 3 , — Review of Black Political Economy , 31 1—2 , 77— State of California Labor, 4 , — Unpublished manuscript, Washington State University.
Social Problems, 49 1 , — Cotter, David A. Gender Inequality at Work. Cranford, Cynthia J. Social Problems, 52 , — De Anda, Robert M. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 20 , — Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 27 , 43— Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 14 , 76— Social Science Quarterly, 74 , — Fullerton, Howard N. Monthly Labor Review, , 21— Gilbertson, Greta A. The International Migration Review, 29 , — Sociological Forum, 8 , — Granovetter, Mark.
The Strength of Weak Ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78 , — Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Greenlees, Clyde S. International Migration Review, 33 , — Greenwell, Lisa, Valdez, R. Social Science Quarterly, 78 , — Hamermesh, Daniel S. Herz, Diane E. Monthly Labor Review. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Holzer, Harry J. Hondagneu-Sotelo, Pierrette.
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Social Science Research, 25 , 73— Hum, Terry. A Protected Niche? In Lawrence D. Bobo, Melvin L. Oliver, James H. Johnson, George E. In Daniel S.http://fuxasovedose.ga
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Bean Eds. Juhn, Chinhui, Murphy, Kevin M. Wage Inequality and the Rise in Returns to Skill. Journal of Political Economy, 3 , — Kahn, Joan R. Population Research and Policy Review, 15 , 45— Kenney, Genevieve M. American Economic Review, 88 , — Kochhar, Rakesh. Kossoudji, Sherrie A. Occupational Mobility for Male Latino Workers. International Migration Review , 30, — Journal of Population Economics, 13 , 81— Journal of Labor Economics, 20 , — Kposowa, Augustine J. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 18 3 , — Logan, John R.
Social Forces, 72 , — Long, James E. Southern Economic Journal, 42 1 , 89— McClain, Paula D. The Journal of Politics, 55 2 , — Spatial Mismatch and Employment in a Decade of Restructuring. Professional Geographer, 48 , — Three questions are addressed in the paper: 1 Are "push" and "pull" factors similarly associated with the likelihood of being self-employed among immigrant parents and Canadian-born parents?
The analysis suggests that difficulties in local labour markets had a stronger "push" effect on self-employment among immigrant fathers than among Canadian-born fathers, while expected earnings differentials had a weaker effect on immigrant fathers than on Canadian-born fathers. Among the next generation, both sons of immigrants and sons of the Canadian-born were more strongly affected by expected earnings differentials than were their parents, while difficulties in the local labour market were not a significant factor.
The local concentration of an ethnic group, that is, the presence of an ethnic enclave, was not positively associated with self-employment rates among immigrants or their children. The remainder of the paper is divided into four sections. Given the importance of this issue and the methodological complexity involved, a detailed discussion is warranted. In economics, entry into self-employment is often viewed as a rational choice, with individuals choosing paid employment or self-employment on the basis of which one offers them greater utility e. An important part of the utility calculation is the earnings gain that an individual expects to achieve by switching from one type of employment to the other.
As the expected earnings gain associated with self-employment increases, so too does the likelihood of business start-up. However, it has yet to be determined whether immigrants and the domestic-born weigh expected earnings gains the same way. In other words, it is not clear whether the magnitude of the expected earnings gain at which self-employment becomes the preferred option is similar for both groups.
Comparisons of immigrants and domestic-born individuals also facilitate the interpretation of analytical results. However, such an interpretation is untenable if a similar association is observed among the domestic-born. Overall, the rational-choice approach underscores the relative gains that "pull" individuals into self-employment. An alternative approach focuses on the factors likely to "push" individuals into self-employment. Using cross-national data, van Tubergen found that immigrants' self-employment rates were higher in those countries in which unemployment rates among the domestic-born are high and that an immigrant group's self-employment rate within a country is positively correlated with that group's unemployment rate.
However, van Tubergen did not find that self-employment rates were higher among immigrants in countries where they have more difficulties transferring their human capital to the labour market. Teixeira's study of Black and Portuguese entrepreneurs in Toronto suggests that Blacks are more likely than Portuguese to report lack of jobs and unemployment as reasons for pursuing self-employment, although family tradition and business orientation are the most important reasons cited by both groups. Some studies test the disadvantage theory by examining the association between group differences in self-employment rates and socioeconomic status.
In the United States, Fairlie and Meyer showed that self-employment rates are higher among more advantaged ethnic and racial groups, as measured by their earnings characteristics. Other studies assess the disadvantage theory by comparing earnings differences between self-employment and paid work. For example, in Canada, Li found that recent immigrants who are self-employed earned substantially less than their counterparts in paid employment, after controlling for differences in observable characteristics.