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No dust jacket. Log-in or create an account first! Glossary Some terminology that may be used in this description includes: Fair is a worn book that has complete text pages including those with maps or plates but may lack endpapers, half-title, etc. Do not speculate or manipulate your observational data to fit into your study's theoretical framework. Conclusion and Recommendations. The conclusion should briefly recap of the entire study, reiterating the importance or significance of your observations.

Avoid including any new information. You should also state any recommendations you may have. Be sure to describe any unanticipated problems you encountered and note the limitations of your study. The conclusion should not be more than two or three paragraphs.


This is where you would place information that is not essential to explaining your findings, but that supports your analysis [especially repetitive or lengthy information], that validates your conclusions, or that contextualizes a related point that helps the reader understand the overall report. There is no limit to what can be included in the appendix or its format [e.

If information is placed in more than one appendix ["appendices"], the order in which they are organized is dictated by the order they were first mentioned in the text of the report. List all sources that you consulted and obtained information from while writing your field report. Note that field reports generally do not include further readings or an extended bibliography.

In the Field: An Introduction to Field Research (Contemporary Social Research Series, 8)

However, consult with your professor concerning what your list of sources should be included. Be sure to write them in the preferred citation style of your discipline [i. Colorado State University; Pace, Tonio. Contact us. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Writing a Field Report This guide provides advice on how to develop and organize a research paper in the social and behavioral sciences. The Conclusion Toggle Dropdown Appendices How to Approach Writing a Field Report How to Begin Field reports are most often assigned in disciplines of the applied social sciences [e.

When writing a field report you need to: Systematically observe and accurately record the varying aspects of a situation. Always approach your field study with a detailed protocol about what you will observe, where you should conduct your observations, and the method by which you will collect and record your data.

Continuously analyze your observations. Always look for the meaning underlying the actions you observe. Ask yourself: What's going on here? What does this observed activity mean? What else does this relate to?

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Note that this is an on-going process of reflection and analysis taking place for the duration of your field research. Recording what you observe should not be done randomly or haphazardly; you must be focused and pay attention to details. Enter the observation site [i. Consciously observe, record, and analyze what you hear and see in the context of a theoretical framework.

This is what separates data gatherings from simple reporting.

The theoretical framework guiding your field research should determine what, when, and how you observe and act as the foundation from which you interpret your findings. Techniques to Record Your Observations Although there is no limit to the type of data gathering technique you can use, these are the most frequently used methods: Note Taking This is the most commonly used and easiest method of recording your observations.

The characteristics of an occupied space and the human use of the place where the observation s are being conducted. Objects and material culture. This refers to the presence, placement, and arrangement of objects that impact the behavior or actions of those being observed. If applicable, describe the cultural artifacts representing the beliefs--values, ideas, attitudes, and assumptions--used by the individuals you are observing.

Use of language. Behavior cycles.

This refers to documenting when and who performs what behavior or task and how often they occur. Record at which stage is this behavior occurring within the setting. The order in which events unfold. Note sequential patterns of behavior or the moment when actions or events take place and their significance. Physical characteristics of subjects. If relevant, note age, gender, clothing, etc. Expressive body movements. This would include things like body posture or facial expressions. Note that it may be relevant to also assess whether expressive body movements support or contradict the language used in conversation [e.

Sampling Techniques Sampling refers to the process used to select a portion of the population for study. Ways to sample when conducting an observation include: Ad Libitum Sampling -- this approach is not that different from what people do at the zoo--observing whatever seems interesting at the moment. With this in mind, most field reports in the social sciences include the following elements: I. Description of Activities Your readers only knowledge and understanding of what happened will come from the description section of your report because they have not been witness to the situation, people, or events that you are writing about.

Note the temporal, physical, and social boundaries you imposed to limit the observations you made. What were your general impressions of the situation you were observing. For example, as a student teacher, what is your impression of the application of iPads as a learning device in a history class; as a cultural anthropologist, what is your impression of women's participation in a Native American religious ritual?

Where -- provide background information about the setting of your observation and, if necessary, note important material objects that are present that help contextualize the observation [e.

Observing abuse: Professional ethics and personal morality in field research

When -- record factual data about the day and the beginning and ending time of each observation. Note that it may also be necessary to include background information or key events which impact upon the situation you were observing [e. Who -- note background and demographic information about the individuals being observed e.

Record who is doing what and saying what, as well as, who is not doing or saying what. If relevant, be sure to record who was missing from the observation. Footnotes August Google Scholar.

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