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Mode of Transportation. Commuting Couples. Driving Stress as a Dependent Variable.

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Time Urgency. Time and the Commuting Experience. Other Personality Measures. Some Comments on the Model. Links in the Model and Coping Reactions. Organization and SelfDiscipline. General Exercise. Morning Exercise. Exercise in the Workplace and during the Workday. Taking Advantage of the Commute. Coping with Noise. Coping with HeatRelated Stressors. Government and Organization Coping Methods. Recommendations for Overcoming the Difficulties of CarPooling. Economic and Logic 1ncentives. Applying Psychological Principles. Making the Best of Car Driving.

Government and Technology. Avoidance or Fleeing. Flexible Work Arrangements. Methodological lssues in Commuting Research. Job demands and worker health: Three-Dimensional reexamination of the relationship between person-environment fit and strain. Social density and perceived control as mediators of crowding stress in highdensity residential neighborhoods. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, The purposeful-action sequence and the "illusion of control": The effects of foreknowledge and target involvement on observers On the causal ordering of job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

Traffic congestion, perceived control, and psychophysiological stress among urban bus drivers. General attitudes and organizational withdrawal: An evaluation of a causal model. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 39, 1 The importance of individuals' repertoires of behaviors: The scientific appropriateness of studying multiple behaviors and general attitudes.

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New York: Pergamon, , Greenbie Eds. New York: Plenum, Karlin, RA, Katz, S. Those experiencing more impedance report a more negative experience of commuting, higher general levels of stress, lowered life satisfaction, more hopelessness, less social support, and a less positive problem-solving style.

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They also report lower achievement motivation, less confidence, poorer attitude to fitness, less time spent at work, and more time spent socializing. In summary, the current research with support from the limited amount of previous research, suggests a number of effects of commuting. These effects will depend very much on the impedance or difficulty experienced. Effects indicated are increased general stress levels, increased stress at home and at work, decreased life satisfaction and a disruption of social, leisure and home life. The effects can be mediated by perceived Downloaded by University of Ulster At 09 September PT control, problem-solving style, achievement motivation and commitment to the job.

This suggests the Although the research is incomplete, it is motivation to continue commuting is related possible to make some suggestions with to being committed to a particular job. It is important to realize others in terms of general stress they do that it is likely that stress experienced will perceive a more stressful home life, along have more than one source or cause and that with perceptions of less social support. In dealing effectively with stress involves looking addition there is significantly less time spent at all the life domains. However, using the at home and socializing.

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Furthermore the perceived control The identification of impedance as central to and confidence in problem solving, despite the generation of stress in commuting lower perceived social support, indicates an obviously points to aspects of dealing with independent approach. The role of social the problem which are beyond the individual. One cannot draw strong for the individual are impossible to estimate.

The urgency of alleviating the human aspect should go without saying. As well as this there is the economic cost of lost days and lost production.

Given the situation Train Users versus Car Drivers where high levels of impedance are a major The final aspect of this research which I wish source of stress the most obvious solution is to report concerns differences between those to try to remove or reduce the sources of who commute by car and those who use impedance. On the large scale there are two public transport. Car users report a more possibilities to be considered, 1 improving positive and less negative travel experience the rail and road systems, and 2 reducing than train travellers.

They also feel more in the numbers of persons using the systems. However, this, longer had your job?

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By going through this in itself, often leads to a relocation of the process you can begin to identify the value commuting problem on a smaller scale in of each domain. The next stage would be to places where the transport system is even less take each domain in turn and consider your able to cope. Relocation must involve long- behaviour in that domain. One way of doing term and proactive planning of the this for home and work domains is to commuting domain.

The experience of many compare inputs and outcomes. If the ratio of towns outside the London area is that what you put in and get out differs from commuter congestion is approached what others put in and get out then you may retrospectively and they are faced with an need to consider your situation.

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Inputs and insoluble problem. Another possible way of outcomes are not just material, but also reducing the usage of transport systems involve emotional and psychological aspects.

Commuting Stress: 6 Ways To Enjoy A More Relaxing Daily Commute | HuffPost Life

There are various ways in which you can Major difficulties focus around "rush hours" evaluate a life domain and these are quite which in fact account for only three to four often personal. It may be worthwhile for the source of any disturbance. Again taking employers to consider changing the timing of each domain, look at how much it is affected the working day in some jobs. This might be an As a psychologist I am more concerned infringement of time or a draining of with the person and with how that person can physical or psychological resources.

It may be develop skills or methods for dealing with that insufficient time is spent with the family, life which reduce stress levels. However, it is or that the quality of that time is reduced important that the problems of systems and because of lack of energy or motivation. It structures are not passed back to the may be that a person has no structured individual and that an attitude of fatalism leisure activities, or that social activities are about the way things are, to the effect that limited to alcohol consumption.

It is a good "you must make the best of a bad lot" does idea to make lists of activities typically not develop. The aim would Central to reducing the ill-effects of stress be to look at ways of removing any are the concepts of control and social imbalance. Anything which increases the individual's perceptions of having control in In the commuting domain the first thing a situation will reduce stress levels. Being in would be to look at ways of reducing the control means being proactive to some extent time and difficulty of the commute.

Perhaps and this is important because the there is an alternative route which is less consequences of stress put pressure on stressful. Perhaps there are times when the resources which may create further sources of commute could be done outside rush hours. For example, stress in the Having considered possible changes to individual puts pressure on the immediate reduce stress, the next stage would be to look family, which may lead to conflict within the at personal resources.

It has been shown that family and the danger of the removal of the those who approach problems rather than main source of social support for most avoid them, have confidence in their ability individuals.

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Thus, taking a proactive stance is to solve problems, can generate a range of important in recognizing danger signs and solutions, can implement and carry through preventing more serious problems. One of the chosen solutions, can accept the credit for first steps in dealing with stress is recognizing effective problem solving and can learn from its existence. To this end the individual can mistakes, are more resistant to stress. Again, engage in a review exercise of his or her life recognizing areas of weakness is the first situation. Furthermore, being First of all, there is the need to identify confident of having social support, being clearly goals and values.

An individual might start mediators of stress.